Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg
University of HeidelbergFaculty of Physics and AstronomyInstitut of Theoretical PhysicsAndreas MielkeAndreas Mielkeemail

Andreas Mielke
Institut for Theoretical Physics
Ruprecht-Karls University
Philosophenweg 19
D-69120 Heidelberg
Tel.: ++49 6221 549431 (Secretary)
Fax: ++49 6221 549331

Correlated fermions and bosons, Hubbard model

Ferromagnetism in the Hubbard model has been investigated for long time. Unfortunately, only few exact results are available. A class of models where we were able to proof the existence and the uniqueness of ferromagnetic ground states are the so called flat-band systems. They contain a flat band together with several dispersive bands. We have studied these models since 1991. In the last two years we were able to generalize some of the results to models with a partially flat band. This is an important progresss, since it opens a way to metallic ferromagnetism.

Interacting bosons in flat band structures show various interesting effects including the formation of a Wigner crystal and pair formation.

Selected publications in this field

Jacob Fronk, Andreas Mielke: Localised pair formation in bosonic flat-band Hubbard models
Journal of Statistical Physics 185:14, (2021) .

Archiv: arXiv:2008.01756
Flat-band systems are ideal model systems to study strong correlations. In a large class of one or two dimensional bosonic systems with a lowest flat-band it has been shown that at a critical density the ground states are Wigner crystals. Under very special conditions it has been shown that pair formation occurs if one adds another particle to the system. The present paper extends this result to a much larger class of lattices and to a much broader region in the parameter space. Further, a lower bound for the energy gap between these pair states and the rest of the spectrum is established. The pair states are dominated by a subspace spanned by states containing a compactly localised pair. Overall, this strongly suggests localised pair formation in the ground states of the broad class of flat-band systems and rigorously proves it for some of the graphs in it, including the inhomogeneous chequerboard chain as well as two novel examples of regular two dimensional graphs. Physically, this means that the Wigner crystal remains intact if one adds a particle to it.

Rebecca Pons, Andreas Mielke, Tobias Stauber: Flat-band ferromagnetism in twisted bilayer graphene
Phys. Rev. B102, 235101 (2020) .

Archiv: arXiv:2007.04076
We discuss twisted bilayer graphene (TBG) based on a theorem of flat band ferromagnetism put forward by Mielke and Tasaki. According to this theorem, ferromagnetism occurs if the single particle density matrix of the flat band states is irreducible and we argue that this result can be applied to the quasi-flat bands of TBG that emerge around the charge-neutrality point for twist angles around the magic angle $\theta\sim1.05^\circ$. We show that the density matrix is irreducible in this case, thus predicting a ferromagnetic ground state for neutral TBG ($n=0$). We then show that the theorem can also be applied only to the flat conduction or valence bands, if the substrate induces a single-particle gap at charge neutrality. Also in this case, the corresponding density matrix turns out to be irreducible, leading to ferromagnetism at half filling ($n=\pm2$).

Andreas Mielke: Pair formation of hard core bosons in flat band systems
J Stat Phys.171, 679-695 (2018) .

Archiv: arXiv:1708.02508
Hard core bosons in a large class of one or two dimensional flat band systems have an upper critical density, below which the ground states can be described completely. At the critical density, the ground states are Wigner crystals. If one adds a particle to the system at the critical density, the ground state and the low lying multi particle states of the system can be described as a Wigner crystal with an additional pair of particles. The energy band for the pair is separated from the rest of the multi-particle spectrum. The proofs use a Gerschgorin type of argument for block diagonally dominant matrices. In certain one-dimensional or tree-like structures one can show that the pair is localised, for example in the chequerboard chain. For this one-dimensional system with periodic boundary condition the energy band for the pair is flat, the pair is localised.

Moritz Drescher, Andreas Mielke: Hard-core bosons in flat band systems above the critical density
Eur. Phys. J. B90, 217 (2017) .

Archiv: arXiv:1704.03905
We investigate the behaviour of hard-core bosons in one- and two-dimensional flat band systems, the chequerboard and the kagom\'e lattice and one-dimensional analogues thereof. The one dimensional systems have an exact local reflection symmetry which allows for exact results. We show that above the critical density an additional particle forms a pair with one of the other bosons and that the pair is localised. In the two-dimensional systems exact results are not available but variational results indicate a similar physical behaviour.

Petra Pudleiner, Andreas Mielke: Interacting bosons in two-dimensional flat band systems
Eur. Phys. J. B88, 207 (2015) .

Archiv: arXiv:1505.03912
The Hubbard model of bosons on two dimensional lattices with a lowest flat band is discussed. In these systems there is a critical density, where the ground state is known exactly and can be represented as a charge density wave. Above this critical filling, depending on the lattice structure and the interaction strength, the additional particles are either delocalised and condensate in the ground state, or they form pairs. Pairs occur at strong interactions, e.g., on the chequerboard lattice. The general mechanism behind this phenomenon is discussed.

Andreas Mielke: Properties of Hubbard models with degenerate localised single particle eigenstates
Eur. Phys. J. B85, (2012) .

Archiv: arXiv:1202.3158
We consider the repulsive Hubbard model on a class of lattices or graphs for which there is a large degeneracy of the single particle ground states and where the projector onto the space of single particle ground states is highly reducible. This means that one can find a basis in the space of the single particle ground states such that the support of each single particle ground state belongs to some small cluster and these clusters do not overlap. We show how such lattices can be constructed in arbitrary dimensions. We construct all multi-particle ground states of these models for electron numbers not larger than the number of localised single particle eigenstates. We derive some of the ground state properties, esp. the residual entropy, i.e. the finite entropy density at zero temperature.

Johannes Motruk, Andreas Mielke: Bose-Hubbard model on two-dimensional line graphs
J. Phys. A: Math. Gen45, 225206 (2012) .

Archiv: arXiv:1112.0131
We construct a basis for the many-particle ground states of the positive hopping Bose-Hubbard model on line graphs of finite 2-connected planar bipartite graphs at sufficiently low filling factors. The particles in these states are localized on non-intersecting vertex-disjoint cycles of the line graph which correspond to non-intersecting edge-disjoint cycles of the original graph. The construction works up to a critical filling factor at which the cycles are close-packed.

Andreas Mielke: Ferromagnetism in single band Hubbard models with a partially flat band
Phys. Rev. Lett.82, 4312-4315 (1999) .

Archiv: cond-mat/9904258
A Hubbard model with a single, partially flat band has ferromagnetic ground states. It is shown that local stability of ferromagnetism implies its global stability in such a model: The model has only ferromagnetic ground states if there are no single spin-flip ground states. Since a single-band Hubbard model away from half filling describes a metal, this result may open a route to metallic ferromagnetism in single band Hubbard models.

Andreas Mielke: Stability of ferromagnetism in Hubbard models with degenerate single-particle ground states
J. Phys. A, Math. Gen.32, 8411-8418 (1999) .

Archiv: cond-mat/9910385
A Hubbard model with a \( N_{d} \)-fold degenerate single-particle ground state has ferromagnetic ground states if the number of electrons is less or equal to \( N_{d} \). It is shown rigorously that the local stability of ferromagnetism in such a model implies global stability: The model has only ferromagnetic ground states, if there are no single spin-flip ground states. If the number of electrons is equal to \( N_{d} \), it is well known that the ferromagnetic ground state is unique if and only if the single-particle density matrix is irreducible. We present a simplified proof for this result.

Andreas Mielke: Ferromagnetism in the Hubbard model and Hund's rule
Phys. Lett. A174, 443-448 (1993) .

We investigate the Hubbard model with a $N_{\rm d}$-fold degenerate single particle ground state. If the number of electrons satisfies $N_{\rm e}<N_{\rm d}$, the model has ferromagnetic multiparticle ground states. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for the ground state to be unique $N_{\rm e}=N_{\rm d}$. It is ferromagnetic with spin $S=\frac12N_{\rm e}$. As a corollary, we obtain Hund's rule for the general Hubbard model with degenerate single particle eigenstates on translationally invariant lattices in the special case, where each of the degenerate single particle states if filled with one electron.

Andreas Mielke, Hal Tasaki: Ferromagnetism in the Hubbard model - Examples from Models with Degenerate Single-Electron Ground States
Commun. Math. Phys.158, 341-371 (1993) .

Archiv: cond-mat/9305026
Whether spin-independent Coulomb interaction can be the origin of a realistic ferromagnetism in an itinerant electron system has been an open problem for a long time. Here we study a class of Hubbard models on decorated lattices, which have a special property that the corresponding single-electron Schrödinger equation has $N_{\rm d}$-fold degenerate ground states. The degeneracy $N_{\rm d}$ is proportional to the total number of sites $\abs{\Lambda}$. We prove that the ground states of the models exhibit ferromagnetism when the electron filling factor is not more than and sufficiently close to $\rho_0=N_{\rm d}/(2\abs{\Lambda})$, and paramagnetism when the filling factor is sufficiently small. An important feature of the present work is that it provides examples of three dimensional itinerant electron systems which are proved to exhibit ferromagnetism in a finite range of the electron filling factor.

Andreas Mielke: Exact ground states for the Hubbard model on the kagomé lattice
J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.25, 4335-4345 (1992) .

The author gives a complete and rigorous description of the ground states of the Hubbard model on the Kagome lattice for electron densities n>or=5/3 and U>0. If 11/6>n>or=5/3 the system shows a ferromagnetic behaviour at zero temperature. If n is above 11/6 the system is paramagnetic. The proof of these results uses some graph-theoretic methods. The results are applicable to all line graphs of planar lattices, of which the Kagome lattice is an example.

Andreas Mielke: Exact results for the $U=\infty$ Hubbard model
J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.25, 6507-6515 (1992) .

The author investigates the U= infinity Hubbard model on a large class of lattices which are line graphs. The most interesting lattices in this class are line graphs of regular bipartite lattices with Ns sites and coordination number k>or=4. The ground state energy and some ground states are given. If the number of electrons N satisfies Ns>or=N>or=2Ns/k-2, the ground state energy is -4 mod t mod (Ns-N). The ground states have no magnetic ordering, they are projections of the ground states at U=0 onto the subspace of states without doubly occupied sites.

Andreas Mielke: Ferromagnetic ground states for the Hubbard model on line graphs
J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.24, L73-L77 (1991) .

The author discusses some of the properties of the Hubbard model on a line graph with n vertices. It is shown that the model has ferromagnetic ground states if the interaction is repulsive (U)0) and if the number of electrons N satisfies 2n>or=N>or=M. M is a natural number that depends on the line graph. For example, the Kagome lattice is a line graph, it has M=5n/3-1.

Andreas Mielke: Ferromagnetism in the Hubbard model on line graphs and further considerations
J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.24, 3311-3321 (1991) .

Let L(G) be the line graph of a graph G=(V,E). The Hubbard model on L(G) has ferromagnetic ground states with a saturated spin if the interaction is repulsive (U>0) and if the number of electrons N satisfies N>or=M. M= mod E mod + mod V mod -1 if G is bipartite and M= mod E mod + mod V mod otherwise. The author shows that the ferromagnetic ground state is unique if N=M. Further he gives a sufficient condition for the existence of other ground states if N>M. The results are valid also for a multi-band Hubbard model on a bipartite graph. In the case of a periodic lattice, the results are related to the existence of a flat energy band.

Last changes: 25.3.2024.
Privacy policy